ROBBIE BURNS DAY

#HOB2014 says `I was born on this day‚Äô really nice tribute ūüôā

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“Lindisfarne Gospels”

#AceHistoryNews says the story of the ‚ÄúLindisfarne Gospels‚ÄĚ are part of our very fabric of Britain, this is how they came into being. ¬† ¬†

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The Lindisfarne Gospels, British Library

An Eight Century monk’s artistic legacy is one of Britain’s greatest literary and religious treasures.

The Lindisfarne Gospels were produced more than 1300 years ago at the monastery of Lindisfarne on the Northumbrian coast. The single volume manuscript consists of 500 pages of beautiful calligraphy and decorative symbols. An Anglo-Saxon translation of the Latin text was added two centuries later and is the earliest known English version of the gospels. The book survived the centuries in spectacular condition and is now held by the British Library.

Dr Michelle Brown, curator of illuminated manuscripts for the British Library, has researched the origins and craftsmanship of the work. Her findings are shared at an exhibition called¬†Painted Labyrinth ‚Äď the World of the Lindisfarne Gospels. The original manuscript is the centrepiece of the free event alongside an exact duplicate which visitors will be able to handle.

Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúThe gospels hold a timeless universal appeal. It was made in an era of immense multiculturalism in England and the imagery is a mix of Roman British, Irish, Germanic, Mediterranean and even Middle Eastern influences. This was a deliberate attempt to include all aspects of society and faith resulting in a breathtaking piece of art.‚ÄĚ

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The central text is the Christian gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John with prefaces by Saint Jerome. Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúThe Lindisfarne Gospels were made in memory of Saint Cuthbert who lived near the abbey and was Bishop of Lindisfarne for a time. He was canonised soon after his death in 687. The work was probably carried out from 715 to 720. The book was clearly made by one skilled artist unlike many medieval manuscripts which were made by a team of scholars.‚ÄĚ

Bishop Eadfrith, leader of the monastery from 698 to 721, is credited as the creator of the work. Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúThe monastery was responsible for the spiritual welfare of people living across the north of England and southern Scotland up to Edinburgh. Eadfrith administered this social service. He also attended church eight times every day as part of his duties. It is amazing he was able to dedicate time to the production of the Gospels.‚ÄĚ

Eadfrith was inventive and came up with modern solutions to problems he encountered. Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúWe now understand the process used to generate the lavish pages. Each piece of vellum covered two pages, for example a spread of pages two and seven, which when folded and bound together created the book. The elaborate designs took up more space than the text in the Naples gospels he was copying from so it was a complex task to visualise the end design at the early stages. Eadfrith created test sheets using his own costly vellum to solve the problem. First he drew out his designs on one piece of vellum. Then he placed another piece over the top and carefully copied the markings. He rubbed the vellum in order to transfer the ‚Äėpencil‚Äô drawings onto the back of the sheet, as a reversed design.‚ÄĚ

Images from the British Library

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Dr Brown continued: ‚ÄúHe then turned the sheet over and painted on the other side from the drawings, using candles to backlight, like a modern light box. This ensured his detailed drawings were not obscured by the first layers of pigment and could be followed and consulted throughout the painting process. He worked on the front of the second piece using a candle as a backlight. The finished work has no preparation markings on the painted side because the layout is all on the back.‚ÄĚ

Research also shows Eadfrith adapted and expanded on existing artistic practice. Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúPigment analysis reveals the gospels have 108 distinct shades. This is in an era when just three colours were generally used for work of this type. Eadfrith used a palette of six base colours made from locally available substances from which he expanded his range. We also believe Eadfrith may have been the inventor of the pencil. The traditional method of marking a design was to score the page using bone, it was difficult to read and paint was often trapped in the indentations. Eadfrith used a metal point with a lead graphite element so the grooves were not as deep. This is about 400 years before any other recorded use of a pencil.‚ÄĚ

The exhibition features the different production styles used on the manuscript. It also looks at how the book has been passed down through the ages. Dr Brown said: ‚ÄúThe Lindisfarne monks fled in 875 to escape Viking invaders and took the book with them to Chester-Le-Street, near Durham. A priest called Aldred added the Anglo-Saxon translation in about 950. He also made notes about what was known of Eadfrith. The monks and the book moved to Durham in 995 where they stayed until at least the time of Dissolution of the Monasteries. It came into the hands of Sir Robert Cotton in the Seventeenth Century and was part of the collection his heirs bequeathed to the nation.‚ÄĚ

Painted Labyrinth ‚Äď the World of the Lindisfarne Gospels is at the Pearson Gallery, British Library, London.¬†

#History2Research


www.bl.uk/collections/treasures/lindis.html
The British Library, 96 Euston Road
London, NW1 2DB

 

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Snapshot of History: “Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1864‚Äď92”

#AceHistoryNews says ‚ÄúPrince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1864‚Äď92)‚ÄĚ was a¬†member of the British Royal Family. He was the eldest son of Albert¬†Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward¬†VII) and Alexandra, Princess¬†of Wales (later Queen Alexandra), and the grandson of the reigning¬†monarch, Queen Victoria. From the time of his birth, he was second in¬†the line of succession to the throne, but he did not become¬†king because¬†he died before his father and his grandmother.

Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (1864-1892)

He travelled the world extensively as a naval cadet and joined the army, but did not undertake any active military duties. After two unsuccessful courtship’s, he was engaged to be married to Mary of Teck in late 1891.

Just a few weeks later, he died in an influenza pandemic. Mary later married his younger brother, George, who became King George V in 1910. Albert Victor’s intellect, sexuality and sanity have been the subject of much speculation. Rumours in 1889 linked him with the Cleveland Street
scandal, which involved a homosexual brothel, but there is no conclusive evidence verifying or disproving them. Some authors have argued that he
was the serial killer known as Jack the Ripper but the claim is widely dismissed.

 

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Snapshot of History: The Kingdom of D`al Riata Circa 574 – 609

#AceHistoryNews says¬†√Āed√°n mac Gabr√°in was a king of D√°l Riata from circa 574 until circa¬†609. The kingdom of D√°l Riata was situated in modern Argyll and Bute,¬†Scotland, and parts of County Antrim, Ireland. Genealogies record that¬†√Āed√°n was a son of Gabr√°n mac Domangairt. He was a contemporary of¬†Saint Columba, and much that is recorded of his life comes from¬†hagiography such as Adomn√°n of Iona‚Äôs Life of Saint Columba.

A manuscript of Bede's, Historia Ecclesiastica...

A manuscript of Bede’s, Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Other¬†sources include Bede‚Äôs Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum and Irish¬†annals; none of the sources are contemporary. √Āed√°n appears as a
character in Old Irish and Middle Irish language works of prose and¬†verse, some now lost. √Āed√°n also appears in some Welsh sources, making
him one of the few non-Britons to figure in Welsh tradition. The Irish annals record his campaigns against his neighbours, in Ireland, and in
northern Britain, including expeditions to the Orkney Islands, the Isle¬†of Man, and the east coast of Scotland. As recorded by Bede, √Āed√°n was
decisively defeated by √Üthelfrith of Bernicia at the Battle of¬†Degsastan. √Āed√°n may have been deposed, or have abdicated, following
this defeat, and the annals report nothing of him until his death around six years later.

More Stories at: #History2Research 

 

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Snapshot of History:”Lamplighter an Employee of a Town Who Lit Street Lights”

Lamplighter#AceHistoryNews says  lamplighter, historically, was an employee of a town who lit street lights. Lights were lit each evening, generally with a wick on a long-pole. At dawn, they would return to put them out using a small hook on the same pole. Early street lights were generally candles, oil, and similar consumable liquid or solid lighting sources with wicks.

Another lamplighter duty was to carry a ladder and renew the candles, oil, or gas mantles.

In some communities, lamplighters served in a role akin to a town watchman; in others, it may have been seen as little more than a sinecure.

Watchmen were groups of men, usually authorised by a state, government, or society, to deter criminal activity and provide law enforcement. Watchmen have existed in various guises throughout the world and were generally succeeded by the emergence of formerly organised policing.

In the 19th century, gas lights became the dominant form of street lighting. Early gaslights required lamplighters, but eventually systems were developed which allowed the lights to operate automatically.

Gas Street Lighting - information sheet - c1950

Gas Street Lighting ‚Äď information sheet ‚Äď c1950 (Photo credit: mikeyashworth)

Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, including hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas. Before electricity became sufficiently widespread and economical to allow for general public use, gas was the most popular means of lighting in cities and suburbs. Early gas lights had to be lit manually, but later gas lights were self-igniting.

Early lighting fuels consisted of olive oil, beeswax, fish oil, whale oil, sesame oil, nut oil, and similar substances. These were the most commonly used fuels until the late 18th century. Chinese records dating back 1700 years note the use of natural gas in the home for light and heat via bamboo pipes to the dwellings.

Public illumination preceded the discovery and adoption of gaslight by centuries. In 1417, Sir¬†Henry Barton,¬†Mayor of London, ordained ‚Äúlanterns with lights to be hanged out on the winter evenings between¬†Hallowtide¬†and¬†Candlemasse.‚Ä̬†Paris¬†was first ¬†lit by an order issued in 1524, and, in the beginning of the 16th century, the inhabitants were ordered to keep lights burning in the windows of all houses that faced the streets. In 1668, when some regulations were made for improving the streets of London, the residents were reminded to hang out their¬†lanterns¬†at the usual time, and, in 1690, an order was issued to hang out a light, or lamp, every night as soon as it was dark, from¬†Michaelmas¬†to¬†Christmas. By an Act of the¬†Common Council¬†in 1716, all housekeepers, whose houses faced any street, lane, or passage, were required to hang out, every dark night, one or more lights, to burn from six to eleven o‚Äôclock, under the penalty of one¬†shilling¬†as a fine for failing to do so.

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Snapshot of History: Oswald Watt – Australian Aviator and British Businessman

Captain Oswald Watt, an English-born Australia...

Captain Oswald Watt, an English-born Australian aviator who was a member of the French Foreign Legion before joining the Australian Flying Corps. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says¬†Oswald Watt (1878‚Äď1921) was an Australian aviator and businessman. He¬†was born in England and came to Sydney when he was a year old, returning¬†to England for his education. In 1900 he went back to Australia and¬†enlisted in the Militia, before acquiring cattle stations in New South¬†Wales and Queensland. He was also a partner in the family shipping firm.¬†Becoming in 1911 the first Australian to qualify for a Royal Aero Club¬†flying certificate, Watt joined the French Foreign Legion as a pilot on¬†the outbreak of World War¬†I. He transferred to the Australian Flying¬†Corps (AFC) in 1916, quickly progressing to become commanding officer of¬†No.¬†2 Squadron on the Western Front. By February 1918, he had been¬†promoted to lieutenant colonel and taken command of the AFC‚Äôs 1st¬†Training Wing in England. A recipient of France‚Äôs Legion of Honour and¬†Croix de Guerre, Watt was appointed an Officer of the Order of the¬†British Empire in 1919. He left the military to pursue business¬†interests in Australia. In 1921, he drowned at Bilgola Beach, New South¬†Wales. He is commemorated by the Oswald Watt Gold Medal for outstanding¬†achievement in Australian aviation, and the Oswald Watt Fund at the¬†University of Sydney.

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Snapshot of History: “Adelaide Anne Procter – British Poet and Philanthropist”

Adelaide Anne Procter

Adelaide Anne Procter (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says¬†Adelaide Anne Procter (1825‚Äď1864) was a British poet and¬†philanthropist. She worked for unemployed women and the homeless, and¬†was actively involved with feminist groups and journals. Procter‚Äôs¬†literary career began when she was a teenager; her poems were primarily¬†published in Charles Dickens‚Äôs periodicals Household Words and All the¬†Year Round and later appeared in book form. Her charity work and her¬†conversion to Roman Catholicism appear to have strongly influenced her¬†poetry, which deals mostly with such subjects as homelessness, poverty,¬†and ‚Äúfallen women‚Äú. Procter was the favourite poet of Queen Victoria.¬†Her poetry went through numerous editions in the 19th¬†century; Coventry¬†Patmore called her the most popular poet of the day, after Alfred, Lord¬†Tennyson. Nonetheless, by the early 20th¬†century her reputation had¬†diminished. The few modern critics who have given her work attention¬†argue that her work is significant, in part for what it reveals about¬†how Victorian women expressed otherwise repressed feelings. Procter¬†never married, and some of her poetry has prompted speculation that she¬†was a lesbian.

She died of tuberculosis at the age of 38.

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